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Open Access Research

Transcriptomics and proteomics analyses of the PACAP38 influenced ischemic brain in permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model mice

Motohide Hori12, Tomoya Nakamachi23, Randeep Rakwal24*, Junko Shibato2, Tetsuo Ogawa2, Toshihiro Aiuchi2, Tatsuaki Tsuruyama1, Keiji Tamaki1 and Seiji Shioda2*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Forensic Medicine and Molecular Pathology, School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8315, Japan

2 Department of Anatomy I, School of Medicine, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo, 142-8555, Japan

3 Department of Center for Biotechnology, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo, 142-8555, Japan

4 Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, 305-8572, Japan

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Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012, 9:256  doi:10.1186/1742-2094-9-256

Published: 23 November 2012

Abstract

Introduction

The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is considered to be a potential therapeutic agent for prevention of cerebral ischemia. Ischemia is a most common cause of death after heart attack and cancer causing major negative social and economic consequences. This study was designed to investigate the effect of PACAP38 injection intracerebroventrically in a mouse model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (PMCAO) along with corresponding SHAM control that used 0.9% saline injection.

Methods

Ischemic and non-ischemic brain tissues were sampled at 6 and 24 hours post-treatment. Following behavioral analyses to confirm whether the ischemia has occurred, we investigated the genome-wide changes in gene and protein expression using DNA microarray chip (4x44K, Agilent) and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) coupled with matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), respectively. Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining were also used to further examine the identified protein factor.

Results

Our results revealed numerous changes in the transcriptome of ischemic hemisphere (ipsilateral) treated with PACAP38 compared to the saline-injected SHAM control hemisphere (contralateral). Previously known (such as the interleukin family) and novel (Gabra6, Crtam) genes were identified under PACAP influence. In parallel, 2-DGE analysis revealed a highly expressed protein spot in the ischemic hemisphere that was identified as dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2 (DPYL2). The DPYL2, also known as Crmp2, is a marker for the axonal growth and nerve development. Interestingly, PACAP treatment slightly increased its abundance (by 2-DGE and immunostaining) at 6 h but not at 24 h in the ischemic hemisphere, suggesting PACAP activates neuronal defense mechanism early on.

Conclusions

This study provides a detailed inventory of PACAP influenced gene expressions and protein targets in mice ischemic brain, and suggests new targets for thereaupetic interventions.

Keywords:
CRMP2; Crtam; DNA microarray; Gabra6; Ischemia; Il6; Neuroprotection; PACAP