Inflammation modulates expression of laminin in the central nervous system following ischemic injury
Department of Pharmacology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794-8651, USA
Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012, 9:159 doi:10.1186/1742-2094-9-159Published: 3 July 2012
Ischemic stroke induces neuronal death in the core of the infarct within a few hours and the secondary damage in the surrounding regions over a long period of time. Reduction of inflammation using pharmacological reagents has become a target of research for the treatment of stroke. Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), a marker of inflammation, is induced during stroke and enhances inflammatory reactions through the release of enzymatic products, such as prostaglandin (PG) E2.
Wild-type (WT) and COX-2 knockout (COX-2KO) mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Additionally, brain slices derived from these mice or brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) conditions. The expression levels of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins were assessed and correlated with the state of inflammation.
We found that components of the ECM, and specifically laminin, are transiently highly upregulated on endothelial cells after MCAO or OGD. This upregulation is not observed in COX-2KO mice or WT mice treated with COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, suggesting that COX-2 is associated with changes in the levels of laminins.
Taken together, we report that transient ECM remodeling takes place early after stroke and suggest that this increase in ECM protein expression may constitute an effort to revascularize and oxygenate the tissue.