IFN-γ induces a larger increase in the mobility of dextran labeled vesicles in WT than inGFAP-/-Vim-/-mouse astrocytes. (a, b) Top, representative fluorescence images of a control (Ctrl.) and an IFN-γ-treated (+IFN-γ) WT astrocyte (a) and a GFAP-/-Vim-/- astrocyte (b) labeled with dextran. Bottom, trajectories of dextran-loaded vesicles in an exemplary cell before (Spon.) and after treatment with 1 mM ATP (ATP). The tracks of individual vesicles were monitored for 30 s (see also the movies, Additional files 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8). Vesicle tracks were longer in WT and GFAP-/-Vim-/- cells treated with IFN-γ than in untreated cells. ATP decreased vesicle mobility. Scale bars: 10 μm. (c) Histogram of average vesicle TLs in control (Ctrl.) and IFN-γ-treated (+IFN-γ) WT and GFAP-/-Vim-/- cells. (d) Histogram of mean MDs of vesicles in control (Ctrl.) and IFN-γ-treated (+IFN-γ) WT and GFAP-/-Vim-/- cells. Numbers on graphs are numbers of analyzed vesicles. Values are mean ± s.e.m. *P <0.05.
Vardjan et al. Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:144 doi:10.1186/1742-2094-9-144