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Open Access Highly Accessed Review

Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in intracerebral hemorrhage-induced inflammation and injury

Huang Fang, Peng-Fei Wang, Yu Zhou, Yan-Chun Wang and Qing-Wu Yang*

Author Affiliations

Department of Neurology, Second Affiliated Hospital and Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Xinqiao Zhengjie No.183, Shapingba District, Chongqing 400037, China

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Journal of Neuroinflammation 2013, 10:27  doi:10.1186/1742-2094-10-27

Published: 17 February 2013

Abstract

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a common type of fatal stroke, accounting for about 15% to 20% of all strokes. Hemorrhagic strokes are associated with high mortality and morbidity, and increasing evidence shows that innate immune responses and inflammatory injury play a critical role in ICH-induced neurological deficits. However, the signaling pathways involved in ICH-induced inflammatory responses remain elusive. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) belongs to a large family of pattern recognition receptors that play a key role in innate immunity and inflammatory responses. In this review, we summarize recent findings concerning the involvement of TLR4 signaling in ICH-induced inflammation and brain injury. We discuss the key mechanisms associated with TLR4 signaling in ICH and explore the potential for therapeutic intervention by targeting TLR4 signaling.

Keywords:
Toll-like receptor 4; Intracerebral hemorrhage; Inflammation; Hematoma resolution