Albumin induces upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in astrocytes via MAPK and reactive oxygen species-dependent pathways
1 Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, Children’s Memorial Hospital, 2300 Children’s Plaza, Chicago, IL, 60614, USA
2 Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care, Children’s Memorial Hospital, 2300 Children’s Plaza, Chicago, IL, 60614, USA
3 Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Pediatric Critical Illness and Injury, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA
Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012, 9:68 doi:10.1186/1742-2094-9-68Published: 16 April 2012
Astrocytes are an integral component of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) which may be compromised by ischemic or traumatic brain injury. In response to trauma, astrocytes increase expression of the endopeptidase matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. Compromise of the BBB leads to the infiltration of fluid and blood-derived proteins including albumin into the brain parenchyma. Albumin has been previously shown to activate astrocytes and induce the production of inflammatory mediators. The effect of albumin on MMP-9 activation in astrocytes is not known. We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the production of MMP-9 by albumin in astrocytes.
Primary enriched astrocyte cultures were used to investigate the effects of exposure to albumin on the release of MMP-9. MMP-9 expression was analyzed by zymography. The involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the TGF-β receptor-dependent pathways were investigated using pharmacological inhibitors. The production of ROS was observed by dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate fluorescence. The level of the MMP-9 inhibitor tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 produced by astrocytes was measured by ELISA.
We found that albumin induces a time-dependent release of MMP-9 via the activation of p38 MAPK and extracellular signal regulated kinase, but not Jun kinase. Albumin-induced MMP-9 production also involves ROS production upstream of the MAPK pathways. However, albumin-induced increase in MMP-9 is independent of the TGF-β receptor, previously described as a receptor for albumin. Albumin also induces an increase in TIMP-1 via an undetermined mechanism.
These results link albumin (acting through ROS and the p38 MAPK) to the activation of MMP-9 in astrocytes. Numerous studies identify a role for MMP-9 in the mechanisms of compromise of the BBB, epileptogenesis, or synaptic remodeling after ischemia or traumatic brain injury. The increase in MMP-9 produced by albumin further implicates both astrocytes and albumin in the acute and long-term complications of acute CNS insults, including cerebral edema and epilepsy.