Transient early neurotrophin release and delayed inflammatory cytokine release by microglia in response to PAR-2 stimulation
- Equal contributors
1 Department of Anesthesiology, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200003, China
2 Department of Anesthesiology, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, China
3 Department of Physiology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, China
4 Department of Orthopedics, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200003, China
Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012, 9:142 doi:10.1186/1742-2094-9-142Published: 25 June 2012
Activated microglia exerts both beneficial and deleterious effects on neurons, but the signaling mechanism controlling these distinct responses remain unclear. We demonstrated that treatment of microglial cultures with the PAR-2 agonist, 2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2, evoked early transient release of BDNF, while sustained PAR-2 stimulation evoked the delayed release of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and nitric oxide. Culture medium harvested during the early phase (at 1 h) of microglial activation induced by 2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 (microglial conditioned medium, MCM) had no deleterious effects on cultured neurons, while MCM harvested during the late phase (at 72 h) promoted DNA fragmentation and apoptosis as indicated by TUNEL and annexin/PI staining. Blockade of PAR-1 during the early phase of PAR-2 stimulation enhanced BDNF release (by 11%, small but significant) while a PAR-1 agonist added during the late phase (24 h after 2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 addition) suppressed the release of cytokines and NO. The neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects of activated microglial exhibit distinct temporal profiles that are regulated by PAR-1 and PAR-2 stimulation. It may be possible to facilitate neuronal recovery and repair by appropriately timed stimulation and inhibition of microglial PAR-1 and PAR-2 receptors.