HIV-1 Tat C-mediated regulation of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-3 by microRNA 32 in human microglia
Laboratory of Neurovirology and Inflammation Biology, Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research(CSIR), Uppal Road, Hyderabad, 500007, India
Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012, 9:131 doi:10.1186/1742-2094-9-131Published: 18 June 2012
HIV-1 Tat protein is known to be associated with neuroinflammation, a condition that develops in almost half of patients infected with HIV-1. HIV-1 Tat can alter glial neuroprotective functions, leading to neurotoxicity within the CNS. HIV-1 Tat is known to be secreted from productively infected cells and can affect neighboring uninfected cells by modulating cellular gene expression in a bystander fashion.
We were interested to study whether exogenous exposure to HIV-1 Tat-C protein perturbs the microRNA (miRNA) expression profile of human microglial cells, leading to altered protein expression. We used protein expression and purification, miRNA overexpression, miRNA knockdown, transfection, site-directed mutagenesis, real-time PCR, luciferase assay and western blotting techniques to perform our study.
HIV-1 Tat-C treatment of human microglial cells resulted in a dose-dependent increase in miR-32 expression. We found that tumor necrosis factor-receptor–associated factor 3 TRAF3) is a direct target for miR-32, and overexpression of miR-32 in CHME3 cells decreased TRAF3 both at the mRNA and the protein level. Recovery of TRAF3 protein expression after transfection of anti-miR-32 and the results of the luciferase reporter assay provided direct evidence of TRAF3 regulation by miR-32. We found that the regulation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and IRF7 is controlled by cellular levels of TRAF3 protein in microglial cells, as after overexpression of miR-32 and application of anti-miR-32, expression levels of IRF3 and IRF7 were inversely regulated by expression levels of TRAF3. Thus, our results suggest a novel miRNA mediated mechanism for regulation of TRAF3 in human microglial cells exposed to HIV-1 Tat C protein. These results may help to elucidate the detrimental neuroinflammatory consequences of HIV-1 Tat C protein in bystander fashion.
HIV-1 Tat protein can modulate TRAF3 expression through miRNA mediated pathway and can change the downstream expression of IRF3 and IRF7. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism of HIV-1 Tat C protein-mediated perturbation of miRNA, resulting in dysregulation of cellular TRAF3.