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Open Access Research

Expression and cellular localization of cyclooxygenases and prostaglandin E synthases in the hemorrhagic brain

Tao Wu12, He Wu13, Jessica Wang1 and Jian Wang1*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Anesthesiology/Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA

2 Department of Neurology, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, PR China

3 Department of Pathology, First Clinical Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001, PR China

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Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011, 8:22  doi:10.1186/1742-2094-8-22

Published: 8 March 2011

Abstract

Background

Although cyclooxygenases (COX) and prostaglandin E synthases (PGES) have been implicated in ischemic stroke injury, little is known about their role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced brain damage. This study examines the expression and cellular localization of COX-1, COX-2, microsomal PGES-1 (mPGES-1), mPGES-2, and cytosolic PGES (cPGES) in mice that have undergone hemorrhagic brain injury.

Methods

ICH was induced in C57BL/6 mice by intrastriatal injection of collagenase. Expression and cellular localization of COX-1, COX-2, mPGES-1, mPGES-2, and cPGES were examined by immunofluorescence staining.

Results

In the hemorrhagic brain, COX-1, mPGES-2, and cPGES were expressed constitutively in neurons; COX-1 was also constitutively expressed in microglia. The immunoreactivity of COX-2 was increased in neurons and astrocytes surrounding blood vessels at 5 h and then tended to decrease in neurons and increase in astrocytes at 1 day. At 3 days after ICH, COX-2 was observed primarily in astrocytes but was absent in neurons. Interestingly, the immunoreactivity of mPGES-1 was increased in neurons in the ipsilateral cortex and astrocytes in the ipsilateral striatum at 1 day post-ICH; the immunoreactivity of astrocytic mPGES-1 further increased at 3 days.

Conclusion

Our data suggest that microglial COX-1, neuronal COX-2, and astrocytic COX-2 and mPGES-1 may work sequentially to affect ICH outcomes. These findings have implications for efforts to develop anti-inflammatory strategies that target COX/PGES pathways to reduce ICH-induced secondary brain damage.