Figure 1.

Visualization of CCL2, IL-6, IL-8 and B. burgdorferi. (A) CCL-2 (green) inside neurons stained red with NeuN. The signal for CCL-2 is also in satellite glia and dorsal root nerves. (B) CCL-2 in green in satellite glia stained red with GFAP-cy3. (C) CCL-2 in green in satellite glial and neurons stained red with S-100. CCL-2 also co-localizes with Schwann cells staining positive with p75NTR, in red in the dorsal root (D). Unstained nerve tissue is gray as imaged by differential interference contrast (DIC). The spirochetes in A-D appear blue stained with antibody against whole B. burgdorferi, in combination with a Zenon labeling Kit Alexa 647. (E) IL-6 (green) localized inside neurons staining red with NeuN. The signal for IL-6 is also in areas occupied by satellite glia. (F) IL-6 in green within the satellite glia and neurons stained red by S-100. The signal for IL-6 is also seen in areas occupied by sensory neurons. (G) IL-6 (green) in Schwann cells stained with p75NTR, in red in the dorsal root; the remaining unstained nerve tissue is gray as imaged by DIC. The spirochetes appear blue in E-G. (H) IL-8 (green) inside satellite glia stained positive for GFAP (red). The signal for IL-8 is not seen in areas occupied by neurons. (I) IL-8 (green) co-localized within Schwann cells stained with CNPase (red) in the dorsal root. Spirochetes appear blue in H and I. (J, K and L) show the absence of CCL2 , IL-6 and IL-8, respectively, in control sections (green signal) that were also stained in parallel for S-100, CNPase or NeuN (all appearing red). The unstained tissue appears gray as imaged by DIC. Results indicate representative images of DRG explants from three adult rhesus macaques. CNPase, 2′,3′-cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase; DRG, dorsal root ganglia; GFAP, glial fibrillary acid protein.

Ramesh et al. Journal of Neuroinflammation 2013 10:88   doi:10.1186/1742-2094-10-88
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